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Fiction Style Guide: Plurals and Possessives

The more you get right in your manuscript before submitting to editors, the less work they'll have to do on mechanical issues—and the more time they can spend on making your writing shine. Plus, learning the conventions of fiction style* can save you money.

*This is Articulate Editing house style, which is based on generally accepted fiction conventions (in the US) and a pinch of personal opinion. Most of what is written here will apply across the board. If a guideline has wiggle room, I'll let you know. And if you're working with a publisher, make sure you follow their specifications as their house style may differ slightly. (This style guide also applies to creative nonfiction.)

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Standard plural forms

To form the plural of most English words, stick an s on the end. Unless the word ends with s, j, z, x, ch, or sh, then add es. But there's lots of exceptions, so if you're unsure of the correct plural form of a word, check Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary or Merriam Webster's Unabridged online dictionary. If there's more than one option, choose the first (unless the plurals are used for different purposes.)

To form the plural of words that end in y, change the y to ie and add s.

one try/two tries

Many, but not all, nouns that end in f or fe change to ve in the plural.


But ...


Words that end in o are inconsistent. With most you add s, with some es, and a few are correct either way. Check your dictionary for the preferred spelling.

calico/calicos or calicoes
zero/zeros or zeroes

Plurals of compound nouns

The plurals of many compound nouns will be in the dictionary. For those that aren't, use common sense: the more significant part gets made plural.

day laborer/day laborers
area of expertise/areas of expertise

Plurals with italics and quotation marks

To form the plural of a word inside quotation marks, keep the s inside the quotation marks.

Your speech was full of "like"s. X
How many "abracadabras" must I say?

With Italicized words, the s is usually set in roman.

How many abracadabras must I say?

But ...

With plurals of foreign words that are italicized, italicize the whole word.


Plurals of letters, numerals, and abbreviations

Plurals of uppercase letters, numerals, and abbreviations are normally formed by adding the letter s.

I've seen three UFOs.
She earned all As.
The 1990s were a great decade.

But ...

To form the plurals of lowercase letters, add 's. Italicize the letter as letter, but leave the apostrophe and s in roman.

x's and y's
"How many s's in Mississippi?"

But ... these common expressions are set in roman.

mind your p's and q's
dot your i's and cross your t's

Plurals of proper nouns

Most plurals of proper nouns are formed by adding s, or es if the name ends in ch, j, s, sh, x, or z. Exceptions can be found in the dictionary.

the Chavez family/the Chavezes
the Williamses
the Kennedys
the two Germanys (not Germanys)
How many Monets are in your art collection?
There are three Toms in my class.

Never use an apostrophe to form a plural of a surname.

The Chavez's are coming over. X

Names that end in a silent s or x are best left singular.

Two Joneses, two Delacroix, and three Deschamps are coming.

Collective nouns can be singular or plural.


Whether or not they take a singular or plural verb depends on whether the group is acting as a whole or as individuals.

My family is the best!
His family are constantly at each others' throats.


Singular nouns

To form the possessive of most singular nouns, add an apostrophe, then an s.

the seat of the chair/the chair's seat
John's shoes
the elephant's trunk

This includes abbreviations and numbers.

the Glock 17's bullets
the UFO's blinking lights

And nouns that end in an unpronounced s.

Illinois's capital
the marquis's estate

This also applies to singular nouns (common and proper) that end in s, x, or z.

James's keys
the boss's daughter
Mrs. Chavez's car
the fox's tail

But ... this is an area where styles vary.

Some publishers may prefer just an apostrophe after singular nouns that end in s, and independent authors can decided for themselves how to style singular nouns that end in s. Remember, euphony can trump rules if you end up with a phrase full of sibilance, like "Seamus's sustenance."

CMOS used to recommend that classical and biblical names ending in the "eez" sound take only an apostrophe, but now recommend adding 's.


But ...

Use your ear (and the dictionary). If common phrases don't include the extra s sound when spoken aloud, leave it out.

Achilles' heel
for goodness' sake

Other versions that follow the "for ... sake" pattern follow the general rule. Again, your ear will guide you.

for Jesus's sake
for appearance's sake

When forming a possessive of an italicized word, the 's should be in roman if the surrounding text is in roman.

To the Lighthouse's use of imagery
the letter m's double humps

But ...

Avoid forming possessives of words in quotations. Rephrase instead.

"The Raven"'s use of imagery X
Poe's use of imagery in The Raven

Plural nouns

To form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s or es, just add an apostrophe.

your parents' house
members' rights
ladies' room

This is true of surnames, as well. However, surnames tend to confuse people. If you're writing about two or more people, first form the plural